Citing Sources

APA


Like all documentation styles, APA style provides a standard system for giving credit to others for their contribution to your work. It's what we call a "parenthetical" documentation style, meaning that citations to original sources appear in your text. This allows the reader to see immediately where your information comes from, and it saves you the trouble of having to make footnotes or endnotes.


The APA style calls for three kinds of information to be included in in-text citations. The author's last name and the work's date of publication must always appear, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list. The third kind of information, the page number, appears only in a citation to a direct quotation.


The APA style includes guidelines for the formatting of documents. The most important aspects of these guidelines for most academic writing are the formatting of the reference list and headings. When applying APA style to these elements, it is important to remember that the intent of thePublication Manual is to assist the editorial staff of APA journals in typesetting. If you are preparing a paper for a class assignment rather than a journal, you are in a sense publishing it yourself. Consult your instructor or advisor for specific course requirements.


Also see print version

 

Chicago

Also see print version or online (Duke only) version

 

 CSE

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) offers three systems of documentation. In all three systems, a reference list at the end of the paper provides all the information your reader needs to track down your sources. In-text references in your sentences show your reader which sources support the claims and information of that sentence.

The systems differ in the details of how they format in-text references and how they organize the reference list. For more information about each system, click on the appropriate link below:
 

  • In the citation-name system, number your sources alphabetically by each author's last name in the reference list at the end of your paper. In the sentences of your paper, cite these sources using the number from the reference list. This means that the in-text citation 1 refers to the first source in your alphabetical list.


Example from Charkowski (2012):
 

  • In the citation-sequence system, number your sources in the reference list at the end of the paper by the order in which you refer to them in your paper. In the sentences of your paper, cite these sources using the number from the reference list. This means that the in-text citation 1 refers to the first source mentioned in your text.


Example from Newbury (2013):
 

  • In the name-year system, list (but do not number) your sources alphabetically in the reference list at the end of your paper. In the sentences of your paper, cite these sources by giving the author's last name and year of publication in parentheses.


Example from Wattiaux (2005):

Also see print version

 

MLA

Founded in 1883, the Modern Language Association of America provides opportunities for its members to share their scholarly findings and teaching experiences with colleagues and to discuss trends in the academy. MLA members host an annual convention and other meetings, work with related organizations, and sustain one of the finest publishing programs in the humanities. For over a hundred years, members have worked to strengthen the study and teaching of language and literature.

Also see print version

 

Turabian

Kate Turabian literally wrote the book on the successful completion and submission of the student paper. Her Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, created from her years of experience with research projects across all fields, has sold more than nine million copies since it was first published in 1937.


Now in its eighth edition, the manual has been fully updated to align with the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and to address the growing role of digital sources on academic research, while retaining its familiar three-part structure:

 

  • A thorough introduction to the steps in the research and writing process, including formulating questions, reading critically, building arguments, and revising drafts
  • Complete coverage of citation practices, with detailed information on two main scholarly citation styles (notes-bibliography and author-date), an array of source types with contemporary examples, and detailed guidance on citing online and digital resources
  • Comprehensive guidance on all matters of editorial style, with recommendations on punctuation, capitalization, spelling, abbreviations, table formatting, and the use of quotations.